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Utility Sector

Applications Overview

LPP Combustion - Fuel Preparation Unit

The modular LPP Combustion Fuel Preparation Units upgrade standard gas turbine power generators into low-emissions, flex-fuel capable power systems.  The equipment can be installed as a front-end to existing or new gas-turbine power plants, commercial building boilers, and industrial burners.  The ‘Lean, Pre-vaporized, Pre-mixed’ (LPP) equipment enables clean combustion of liquid fuels. 


Fuel diversity – across several fuel options – can augment the robustness of a regional power network, especially as the proportion of gas-fired sources grows.  Flex-fuel, low-emissions LPP Combustion Fuel Preparation Units added to existing power plants enhances fuel diversity and lowers costs.

  • High fuel and maintenance costs due to scarcity of natural gas can be avoided. 

  • Operational efficiencies further lower costs.

  • Low-emissions LPP combustion of diesel obviates need for dual-fuel upgrades and avoids violation of air quality restrictions currently due to extended use of liquid fuel.

  • A more reliable gas-fired capacity segment can better support greater integration of intermittent wind and solar generation resources. 

During periods of constrained supply of natural gas, gas-fired power plants can use vaporized liquid fuels as a low-emissions substitute for natural gas on an as-needed basis.  Liquid fuels are easily stored for quick response to gas supply disruptions and gas price spikes.   Power requirements can be met with LPP Combustion flex-fuel power systems configured for various outputs.  Mobile trailer-mounted LPP Power Systems are available in addition to fixed-location deployments. 

LPP Combustion Benefits:

  1. Reduce maintenance costs for use of liquid fuels (excluding No. 4 and No. 6) in gas turbines.

  2. Reduce criteria pollutant emissions for liquid fuels (excluding No. 4 and No. 6).

  3. Reduce operating costs with improved efficiency and performance - less derating for use of liquid fuels in gas turbines.

  4. Gain fuel flexibility for gas turbines with dynamic interchanging and blending of fuels:  natural gas, diesel, heating oil, naphtha, kerosene, bioethanol, biodiesel, natural gas condensates, LNG, and other liquid fuels.

  5. Reduce fuel costs by using off-spec fuels like pharmaceutical or petrochemical waste streams.

  6. Gain electrical generation capacity expansion options with a substitute for natural gas that does not require gas pipeline infrastructure.

  7. Enable use of gas turbines in the highly efficient combined-cycle configuration while running on liquid fuel supplies.

  8. Produce building heating and cooling AC in remote locations by using combined heat and power (CHP) configuration of the power system while running on liquid fuel supplies.

LPP Combustion Substitutes for Natural Gas


  • No. 2 Fuel Oil*

  • Diesel (D2)*

  • Kerosene

  • Jet Fuel

  • Gasoline

  • LNG

  • Naphtha

  • *LPP Standard Systems include diesel operation.

Opportunity Fuels

  • Natural Gas Liquids

  • Y-Grade

  • Ethane

  • Flare Gas

  • Unprocessed Natural Gas

  • Propane 

  • Butane


  • Bioethanol (anhydrous)

  • Bioethanol (hydrous 25%)

  • Biodiesel (ASTM)

  • Biodiesel (off-spec, NA, K)

  • Biobutanol

Chemical Streams

  • Toluene

  • Acetone

  • Isopropyl Alcohol

  • Isobutyl Alcohol

  • Ethyl Acetate

  • Methanol

  • Butanol

  • Ethanol

  • Similar Hydrocarbons

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